How we deal with stress, disappointments, and frustration determines the
essence of our personality. Anger may do more harm than any other emotion.
First of all it is very common and, secondly, it upsets at least two people
- the aggressor and the aggressed against.
There are two problems: how to prevent or control your own anger and how
to handle someone aggressing against you. The overall effects of anger
are enormous. Frustration tells us: "I'm not getting what I want!" and
eventually anger is related to violence, crime,
spouse and child abuse, divorce,
stormy relationships, poor working conditions,
poor physical health (headaches, hypertension,
GI disturbances, heart attacks), emotional disorders, and so on.
how do we learn to suppress aggression?
We learn to genuinely forgive others. This takes a lot of work and understanding.
Anger can be the result of hurt pride, of unreasonable expectations, or
of repeated hostile fantasies. Besides getting our way, we may unconsciously
use anger to blame others for our own shortcomings, to justify oppressing
others, to boost our own sagging egos, to conceal other feelings, and
to handle other emotions (as when we become aggressive when we are afraid).
Any situation that frustrates us, especially when we think someone else
is to blame for our loss, is a potential trigger for anger and aggression.
what is frustration?
It is the feeling we get when we don't get what we want, when something
interferes with our gaining a desired and expected goal. It can be physical
(a flat tire), our own limitations (paralysis after an accident), our
choices (an unprepared for and flunked exam), others' actions (parental
restrictions or torturing a political prisoner), others' motives (deception
for a self-serving purpose), or society's injustice (born into poverty
and finding no way out).
Anger is feeling mad in response to frustration or injury. You don't like
what has happened and usually you'd like to get revenge. Anger is an emotional-physiological-cognitive
internal state; it is separate from the behavior it might prompt. In some
instances, angry emotions are beneficial; if we are being taken advantage
of, anger motivates us to take action (not necessarily aggressive) to
correct the situation.
We know when we are very mad, but anger and aggression come in many forms,
some quite subtle. Look inside yourself for more anger. This list (Madlow,
1972) of behaviors and verbal comments said to others or only thought
to ourselves may help you uncover some resentments you were not aware
Direct behavioral signs:
- ASSAULTIVE Physical and verbal cruelty,
rage, slapping, shoving, kicking, hitting, threaten with a weapon, etc.;
- AGGRESSION Overly critical, fault finding,
name-calling, accusing someone of having immoral or despicable traits
or motives, nagging, whining, sarcasm, prejudice, flashes of temper;
- HURTFUL Malicious gossip, stealing,
- REBELLIOUS Anti-social behavior, open
defiance, refusal to talk;
- DIRECT Verbal or cognitive signs;
- OPEN HATRED + INSULTS "I hate your guts!"
"I'm really mad!" "You're so stupid!";
- CONTEMPT + DISGUST "You're a selfish
SOB!" "You are a spineless wimp!" "You'll never amount to anything!";
- CRITICAL "If you really cared about
me, you'd [fill in blank]!" "You can't trust [fill in blank]!";
- SUSPICIOUS "You haven't been fair!"
- BLAMING "They've been trying to cause
me trouble!" "I don't get the respect I deserve!";
- VENGEFUL "I wish I could really hurt
- NAME CALLING "Guys are jerks!" "Women
are bitches!" "Politicians are self-serving liars!"; and
- LESS INTENSE BUT CLEAR "Well, I'm a
little annoyed ..." "I'm fed up with [fill in blank] ..." "I've had
it!" "You're a pain!" "I don't want to be around you!"
Thinly veiled behavioral signs:
- Distrustful, skeptical;
- Argumentative, irritable, indirectly challenging;
- Resentful, jealous, envious;
- Disruptive, uncooperative, or distracting actions;
- Unforgiving or unsympathetic attitude;
- Sulky, sullen, pouting;
- Passively resistant, interferes with progress;
- Given to sarcasm, cynical humor, and teasing;
- Judgmental, has a superior or holier-than-thou attitude;
Thinly veiled verbal signs:
- "No, I'm not mad - I'm just disappointed / annoyed / disgusted /
put out / irritated."
- "You don't know what you're talking about."
- "Don't make me laugh!"
- "Don't push me, I'll do it when I get good and ready!"
- "Well, they aren't my kind of people."
- "Would you buy a used car from him?"
- "You could improve on [fill in blank]."
- "Unlike Social Work, my major admits only the best students."
Indirect behavioral signs:
- WITHDRAWAL Quiet remoteness, silence, little communication especially
about feelings; or
- PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS Tiredness, anxiety, high blood pressure,
Actually, college students with high hostility scores had, 20 years
later, become more overweight with higher cholesterol and hypertension,
had drunk more coffee and alcohol, had smoked more cigarettes, and generally
had poorer health (Friedman, 1991).
signs of anger
- Depression and guilt;
- Serious mental illness;
- Paranoid schizophrenia;
- Self-defeating or addictive behavior, such
as drinking, over-eating, or drugs;
- Vigorous, distracting activity (exercising or cleaning);
- Excessively submissive, deferring behavior; or
Indirect verbal signs:
- "I just don't want to talk."
- "I'm disappointed in our relationship."
- "I feel bad all the time."
- "If you had just lost some weight ..."
- "I'm really swamped with work, can't we do something about it?"
- "Why does this always happen to me?"
- "No, I'm not angry about anything - I just cry all the time."
It is obvious from these "signs of anger" that anger is frequently
a concealed or disguised emotion. And why not? Getting mad is scary
... and potentially dangerous.
One common way of expressing suppressed anger has been given a special
name: passive-aggressiveness. It is releasing your anger by being passive
or subtly oppositional. For example, such a person may be "tired," unresponsive,
act like he/she "doesn't understand," be late frequently, exaggerate
others' faults, pretend to agree ("sure, whatever"), be tearful, be
argumentative, be forgetful, deny anger ("Nothing's wrong ..."), procrastinate,
and frequently be clumsy or sick (Hankins, 1993).
There is another related form of concealed
anger: feeling like a victim.
Feeling victimized assumes that someone or some situation has mistreated
you. But a person who specializes in constantly feeling like a victim
may not identify or accuse his/her abuser. Instead, he/she generally
feels that the world is against him/her, that others vaguely intend
to make him/her miserable.
Victims usually feel helpless; therefore, they take little responsibility
for what has happened to them. They think they were terribly mistreated
in the past but they now seem unable to accept love and support, e.g.
if you offer them help, they never get enough or if you try to cheer
them up, it seldom works.
A victim is much more likely to sulk, pout, look unhappy, or lay a
guilt trip on something than to get angry. They play games: "Why does
it always happen to me?" or "Yes, but ..." (Noone's ideas or suggestions
will do any good).
The self-pitying, pessimistic, sad, jealous victim is surely sitting
on a mass of hostility. Both the passive-aggressive and the victim are
likely to be aware of their anger, even though it is largely denied.
Anger expresses itself in many forms:
- Bigot, etc.
Potter-Efron & Potter-Efron (1995) describe ten different styles of
expressing anger; this may help you identify your type and help you
There are so many frustrations in our daily lives, one could easily
become chronically irritated. Perhaps more important than the variety
of things that anger us, is:
That is, how close are we to losing control? About two-thirds of the
students in my classes feel the need to gain more control over their
anger. How much of a temper do you have? Ask yourself these kind of
- Do you have a quick or a hot temper?
- Do you suppress or hide your anger (passive-aggressive or victim)?
- Do you get irritated when someone gets in your way?
- When someone fails to give you credit for your work?
- When someone criticizes your looks or opinions or work?
- When someone gives themselves advantages over you?
- Do you get angry at yourself when
you make a foolish mistake?
- When you do poorly in front of others?
- When you put off important things?
- When you do something against your morals or better judgment?
- Do you drink alcohol or use drugs?
- Do you get angry or mellow when you are high?
Research clearly shows that alcohol and drugs
are linked with aggression.
Drinking decreases our judgment and increases our impulsiveness, so
watch out. You probably have a pretty accurate picture of your temper.
But check your opinion against the opinion of you held by relatives
self-hatred and understanding
Theodore Rubin (1975) discusses self-hatred, defined as disliking any
part of our selves.
It involves all of our distortions of our real self, any self-put down,
or any exaggeration of one's goodness or ability. When we distort or
deny what we really are, it suggests we don't like ourselves. This dislike
of self starts in infancy.
Babies have all kinds of habits, needs, and emotions that parents prohibit.
As a child, we all learned that parts of ourselves were "bad". This
self-hatred becomes automated in the form of depression, which both
punishes us and drowns out other feelings, too.
Parents who are rejecting, neglectful, overdemanding, overprotective,
overly punitive, or overbearing increase the self-hatred in a child.
"I'm not good enough" becomes a central part of the self-concept.
Such a child may be a "good girl / boy" but fear and rage may exist
within, even when feeling empty and lifeless. Sometimes the self-hatred
is conscious but the connection between self-criticism and other problems
(depression, anxiety, fatigue) is unconscious.
Sometimes the self-hatred is unconscious and we feel badly without knowing
a dislike of people who are different
Research has shown that, in general, we like people like ourselves and
dislike people who are different (Byrne, 1969). We naturally like people
who reward us and dislike people who punish us; and, similarity is rewarding.
If groups are competitive, critical, and punishing of each other, the
dislike and aggression between the groups grow. Groups and cultures
tend to create ingroups and outgroups. Thus, Hitler used the existing
hostility against Jews to unite, motivate, and deceive the German people
in the 1930's.
Likewise, the U.S. and Russia used distrust of each other during the
"Cold War" to unite each country into uncooperative, hostile but mighty
nations. And each person is expected to conform to his/her group's beliefs.
Imagine trying during the 1980's to defend communistic ideas among Archie
Bunkers, businessmen, or the Moral Majority. Or try to defend blacks
among whites or whites among blacks - and see the hostility quickly
rise towards you.
In short, ingroups are valued.
Outgroups are devalued, stereotyped, and scapegoated. Sometimes the
minority that is discriminated against by the majority culture turns
the anger inward, resulting in self-destructive behavior, such as low
self-esteem, self-blame (like abused women), alcoholism, drug abuse,
and passive-resistance to the dominant culture's ideals of success.
Certainly for a white northern European culture to believe that African,
Chinese, and Indian cultures and histories are unimportant and inferior,
is to be ignorant and disrespectful. Being poor is enough to make you
mad, but to have your ancestors deceived, neglected, and disgraced is
too much. Let's hope conditions improve before the wrath is unleashed
In milder forms, chauvinists may also be hostile, e.g. the male who
puts down his wife and demands she attend to his every need; the angry,
threatening, autocratic boss or teacher who enjoys seeing the worker
or student break into a cold sweat.
Boredom is another source of hostility, according to Fromm.
When life loses its meaning because we are
only a cog in a wheel, our reaction to the senselessness and helplessness
is anger. We feel cheated; we had hoped for more in life; the powerlessness
hurts. Hurting others or making them mad are ways of proving one still
has power, a means of showing "I'm somebody."
Hauck described a woman who had been insulted and abused by an alcoholic
husband for 30 years. She hated him. He had wasted enormous amounts
of needed money on drinks. He was self-centered. When she sought help
from a Rational-Emotive therapist, he told her, "Your husband is sick.
You are demanding that he change, but he can't."
With the therapist's help she started to see her husband as emotionally
ill instead of mean. She stopped getting upset and critical or nasty
with her husband. As a result, the husband stopped fighting (but not
drinking). The woman realized she had been insisting that the world
(especially her husband) be different than it was.
She had created her own angry misery by saying, "Ain't it awful! Things
must be different."
First, something happens to make us mad - someone cheats or insults
us, a child rebels, our lover shows a lot of attention to someone else.
We think about it a lot; we talk about it; it becomes an obsession,
like a movie played over and over.
The more we think about it, the angrier we get.
Moreover, just waiting five minutes helps women get over their anger,
but not men. Zillmann speculates that men may be more prone than women
to ruminate about the mistreatments they have suffered and / or about
their inability (or wished-for ability) to retaliate against their annoyer.
Thus, men hold anger longer than women.
It is not uncommon to meet a person who is still, years later, seething
with anger towards a former spouse or a tyrannical parent or boss. Presumably
the unpleasant memories maintain the hostility which, in turn, fuels
more aggressive fantasies and perhaps ulcers, distrust of others, and
There seem to be two elements in anger-building:
For example, extremely violent persons often ruminate almost continuously
about how awful the hated person is. Also, they think of only violent
solutions to the problem.
On the other hand, research has consistently shown that people who are
frequently aggressive have a very limited ability to think of different
or more creative ways of handling the anger-making situation or person
putting others down
Eric Berne (1964), founder of Transactional Analysis (TA), wrote a very
popular book, Games People Play. One kind of game is to put others down,
which certainly is aggressive. The payoffs of such games are building
one's ego, denying responsibility for one's problems, reaffirming one's
opinion that other people are "not okay", and expressing some of one's
Some of these put-down games involve blaming others ("If it weren't
for you ..."), demeaning others ("I know your blemish ..." "Men only
want sex ..." "Yes, but you're wrong ..."), and revenge ("Now I've got
According to TA, it is the "child" part of us that enjoys playing these
hurtful games, which are carried out unconsciously. The rational "adult"
part of us may never become aware of the destructive, hostile games
being played by the "child" part. But if the "adult" part can gain some
insight, it could stop the games. If insight happened, however, there
would surely be an internal struggle between the "adult" and the "child,"
resulting in stress and irritability.
If your logical "adult" realizes your "child's" motives and stops the
"child" from playing these games, the "child" is likely to resent losing
some of its fun. But at least the aggression-generating thoughts and
experiences of the game are eliminated.
Games are unconscious but we may consciously put-down or degrade or
insult another person by "mind reading" or "psychologizing," i.e. attempting
to analyze and explain their behavior. First of all, most people resent
someone else (unless it's their therapist) telling them what they really
think or feel and what their unconscious motives really are.
Secondly, many of these psychological speculations are negative. Alan
Gurman and David Rice, well known marital therapists, provide many examples.
- "He is still a baby and wants to be cared for."
- "She needs attention all the time, she flirts with everyone."
- "He is afraid I'll be more successful than he is, that's why
he wants me to stay home."
- "You're just trying to make me mad so you'll have an excuse to
Accusations about the other person's ability or desire to change:
- "You're sick, you must want to be unhappy."
- "You don't care about me, you don't want to change."
- "You just don't care how I feel."
Accusations of poor insight:
- "I have more and more to do at work, why can't you understand
that and stop bitching?"
- "Can't you see I'm upset and want to be left alone."
- "You just don't get it, do you?"
Blaming permanent characteristics (or human nature) in the other person:
- "He has a terrible temper."
- "She is super-sensitive."
- "All women are scatterbrained."
- "Men are so insensitive."
- "Boy, are you stupid!"
Psychological concepts are often misused. These aggressive remarks
are likely to hurt others and harm relationships. The attitude underlying
such statements is not acceptance, tolerance, understanding and unconditional
positive regard. It is anger and hostility.
First recognize these resentments and pet peeves and then learn to understand
the causes of the resented behaviors. To truly understand is to forgive.
The relationship between anger and other emotions - anxiety, guilt,
depression, dependency, and sex. There are very complex interactions
between anger and several other emotions.
A classical substitution of one feeling for another is when a person
cries, a sign usually of sadness, instead of showing anger. My experience
in counseling is that when a woman cries, she is really mad about 75%
of the time. Check this out.
Anger turned inward on the self is another
classical dynamic explaining depression.
Some psychologists have suggested the reverse, namely, that the pain
of depression causes anger. All these connections are likely. There
are some interesting, often tragic, relationships between sexual feelings
and aggression: bondage, sadism, rape, masochism,
and the use of sexual swear words when angry.
Impotence and frigidity commonly reflect anger.
Pornography and prostitution are usually
for men's pleasure and profit, while these activities degrade and abuse
women. It has been shown, for instance, that males are more aggressive
towards females than males after watching an erotic film. The relationship
between erotica and aggression is complex, however. Disgusting or crude
pornography increases our aggression.
Several other factors within certain subcultures create stress:
- Having strong conflicts between values, such as believing in white
or male superiority and equal opportunities;
- Feeling unjustly treated and deprived;
- Experiencing economic, racial, sexual, or other prejudices; and
- Believing the "establishment" (e.g. police or courts) is handling
some local situation badly.
The traditional marriage vows are emotionally moving and express a noble
commitment: "I take thee, for better or for worse ... until death do
However, we often come to dislike many things about our partner, leading
to serious conflicts. Indeed, although all start with sincere intentions,
almost 50% of all marriages end in divorce, in spite of enormous pressures
to stay married.
why the pressures?
If marriage is considered a sacred public pledge or even "a union made
in heaven," then divorce might be regarded a sin (like in the Catholic
church) or, at least, a violation of a solemn promise. In addition to
external pressures from family and divorce courts, there are also intense
personal needs to "make it work" because it seems as though "you have
failed" if your marriage fails. Many marriages fail but do not end in
divorce - the so called "empty shell" marriage.
These marriages may not have intense conflicts; indeed, they may be
void of feelings. There must be disappointment in such marriages, however.
Let's look at some of the sources of conflict in the traditional marriage.
Most married people initially try to build a smooth, close, safe relationship,
preferably one without friction. In this process, sometimes the roles
for husband and wife become very rigidly defined; there is no freedom,
no room for growth or change.
Sometimes people think they need to pretend to be or feel some way to
appeal to their spouse; there is little honesty and intimacy if you
think your spouse may not accept you as you really are, i.e. for better
or for worse.
Fullerton (1977), in the mid-70's, explained how "the perfect wife"
becomes sad and angry. A woman with self-doubts may be unusually anxious
to please her new husband. She tries to do everything the way he would
want it done.
She believes: "if I'm the good, perfect wife, I will be loved." Eventually
being perfect with housecleaning and diapers and children gets tiresome
and boring. She becomes resentful. Some evening when her husband arrives
home from work late and finds her still mopping the floor, he asks,
"Are you still cleaning?" She bursts into tears.
She cries because it is either go into a rage against her husband (which
she - the perfect wife - can't do) or turn her anger inward on herself.
She increases the self-criticism, clings more desperately to the husband,
and feels more and more like crying.
The 1970's "perfect wife" was also prone to be jealous. According to
Fullerton, a female was likely to get her sense of worth from a male
- her father, her boyfriend, her husband, and later her sons. She may
have gone from being Daddy's little girl to being someone's wife without
ever becoming a person.
She was dependent on her looks and on being a "good girl" and "perfect
wife" in order to be loved. She saw her husband as having strength and
purpose; he was her whole life. Even when he was at work, she carried
on an inner dialogue with him. She made her decisions in terms of what
he would want and expect.
Being so needy and unsure of her worth, naturally she would be jealous
of anything that took his time - his work, his friends, his interests,
etc. She was too insecure and too "perfect" to confront him, but eventually
the jealousy may burst through, especially if she imagined another woman
Once a jealous rage has occurred, it tended to reoccur. If he was innocent,
it would be hard to prove. If she found out there is another woman,
she was crushed. She felt betrayed, lost, scared, worthless, and angry.
She might decide all men are no good or she might look for another one
who desires her.
Women are changing but any woman over 40 can remember those times.
Husbands may become angry, threatened, and jealous too. An insecure
male may, just like the wife, become dependent on his wife's adoration.
She makes him feel good about himself. He may want her to "stay home"
(too many men out there in the work place). He is jealous of anyone
or anything that gets her attention.
Tragically, that sometimes includes their
own first born child.
The man may be ashamed to admit feeling resentful of his own child.
Yet, he feels left out and betrayed; the wife is bewildered and unable
to relieve his pain because the problem is inside him - his self-doubt
(Fullerton, 1977). Men still want to be in control; they haven't changed
as much as women have since the 1970's.
This causes more problems - girls / women are becoming more independent,
boys / men are remaining dependent, tough, macho, and violent. Our culture
is still inclined to say, "Boys will be boys," but male possessiveness,
dominance, and violence must be condemned and changed. In some families
marital conflict is denied but gets expressed against another family
member, often the oldest or the second child.
This displaced hostility is very harmful to the child because there
is no way to escape (since the child has no control over the real source
of the anger). The child may be accused of bad traits a parent has (projection)
or of bad traits one parent resents in the other partner. For example,
if the wife feels the husband is a liar and a cheat, she may accuse
the son of these traits and ask her husband to punish the son (indirectly
letting the husband know how much she resents those traits).
The husband's shame may get turned into
self-righteous wrath with the son.
The parental expectations of the son to be dishonest may also become
self-fulfilling prophecies, with the son saying to himself "if they
never believe me anyhow, I might as well lie."
No one expects his/her marriage to be like this.
And, in fact, the problems of a two-career marriage without children
would be quite different. But, even though financially better off, the
dual career family has its own unique problems.
dealing with the "intimate enemy"
Like scapegoating, many marital or lovers' quarrels conceal the real
Arguments over money may really be about who has the most power or about
not getting enough attention or recognition. In the last section of
this chapter we will learn about the possibility of honest, open "fair
fighting" with The Intimate Enemy (your spouse), according to Bach and
This kind of "fighting" can confront us with the truth, stripping away
phoniness and deception, and giving us a chance to deal with the real
problems realistically. (It may also encourage criticism and the expression
of raw emotions that damage the relationship, depending on the personalities
close relationships experience some friction. No thinking person will
always agree with us.
The thrill of being with your lover wears off. Certain wishes and dreams
about marriage will not come true. Partners want things from us we can't
or won't give. Criticism and resentment tend to be expressed in irritating
So many human traits annoy us; we tell ourselves that people and things
should be different. It is frustrating when we can't understand why
someone does what they do. What was "cute" when dating may become very
irritating, e.g. a partner's loudness or bossiness or indecisiveness.
Even good traits, like being understanding or rational or in control
of your temper, can be infuriating to a partner who is ashamed of his/her
A partner may accept one of your traits, say shyness, until he/she meets
a good-looking, outgoing person, then he/she may suddenly resent it.
Maslow (1971) had a "Grumble Theory" that says "the grass looks greener
on the other side of the fence and dead on our side."
He felt life was a series of ups and downs; accomplishments and relationships
only give us a temporary high, soon we are taking them for granted and
Marriage is an example: John and Jane were in love, got married, had
two beautiful children. They are supposed to be blissfully happy, but
after several years they take each other for granted - their grass looks
brown and uninteresting. So, John is attracted to other women who tell
him how talented and interesting he is. Jane is also attracted to successful,
attentive males and to a challenging, exciting career.
The risk is that John and / or Jane will turn the unexciting "taken
for granted" feelings into active dislike or disdain - "I can't stand
Jane!" or "I hate being at home!" Maslow observed that high level self-actualizers
focused on getting on with living according to their values and avoided
blaming and resenting others or discounting the past.
Few of us are self-actualizers, however.
When hostility builds inside, eventually it gets released - sometimes
on the wrong person or issue. Often the tirade is a repetitious emotional
harangue, obviously venting the anger rather than communicating. It
may include vicious, nasty, cutting, insulting, offensive accusations.
Both people are likely to become hostile and start playing "hard ball."
In addition to the release of the poison - which may be hard to forgive
- the fighters are usually trying, albeit ineffectively, to change each
other. Have you ever noticed how hard we work to change others and how
little we work on changing our expectations of others?
2006 Clay Tucker-Ladd